Conjunctions

Word Lists in developmental order

Common Coordinating

and, but, so, or

Common Subordinating

after, because, before, for, if, so, unless, until, when

Less Commo n Coordinating

nor, for, yet

Correlative

both/and, either/or, just as/so, neither/nor, not only/but also, whether/or

Later Developing Subordinating

although, as, as if, even though, once, since, than, that, though, till, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while

Basic Conjunction Picture Activities

Click on picture to view a small preview of each activity. Click on Doc or PDF to download worksheets in preferred format.

(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)

(1) Describing with “and” 1 Doc PDF;     (2) Describing with “and” 2 Doc PDF;     (3) Describing with “because” 1 Doc PDF;     (4) Describing with “because” 2 Doc PDF;     (5)  Describing with “and” and “because” 1Doc PDF;     (6) Describing with “and” and “because” 2 Doc PDF

Other Conjunctions Worksheets and Activities – Basic

Click on picture to view a small preview of each activity. Click on Doc or PDF to download worksheets in preferred format.

(1)(2) (3)  (4) (5)(6)(7)

(1) Picture ID Doc PDF;     (2) Conjunctions Fill in the Blank Basic 1 Doc PDF;     (3) Fill in the Blank Common 2 Doc PDF;     (4) Fill in the Blank After/Before Doc PDF;     (5) Fill in the Blank And/Or Doc PDF;     (6) Conjunction Fix It – Basic 1 Doc PDF;     (7) Conjunction Fix It – Common 2 Doc PDF

Later Developing Worksheets and Activities

Click on picture to view a small preview of each activity. Click on Doc or PDF to download worksheets in preferred format.

(1) (2)(3)(4)  (5) (6) (7)

(1) Conjunctions Fill in the Blank Later Developing Doc PDF;     (2) Fill in the Blank Later Developing If/Unless Doc PDF;     (3) Fill in the Blank Later Developing Although/Even if/ Because Doc PDF;      (4) Later Developing Conjunctions Fix It Doc PDF;      (5) Zig Zags/Shout Out Doc PDF;     (6) What’s Wrong Doc PDF; (7) Combining/ Functional Doc PDF

Conjunctions Cards/Card Activity

Click on picture to view a small preview of each activity. Click on Doc or PDF to download worksheets in preferred format.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

(1) Words 1 Doc PDF;     (2) Words  2 Doc PDF;     (3) Sentences 1 DocPDF ;     (4) Sentences 2 Doc PDF;     (5) Sentences 3 Doc PDF;     (6) Backs Doc PDF

Conjunction Sentence Activities

Click on picture to view a small preview of each activity. Click on Doc or PDF to download worksheets in preferred format.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

(1) Sentence Maze 1 Doc PDF;     (2) Sentence Maze 2 Doc PDF;     (3) Sentence Search 1 Doc PDF;      (4) Sentence Search 2 Doc PDF ;      (5) Sentence Bullseye 1 Doc PDF;     (6) Sentence Bullseye 2 Doc PDF;     (7) Sentence Drop 1 Doc PDF;     (8) Sentence Drop 2 Doc PDF;     (9) Sentence Drop 3 Doc PDF

Conjunction Comprehension Strips

Click on picture to view a small preview of each activity. Click on odt or pdf to download worksheets in preferred format.

(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)

(1) Basic Conjunctions 1 odt pdf;     (2) Basic Conjunctions 2 odt pdf;     (3) Basic Conjunctions 3 odt pdf;     (4) Basic Conjunctions 4 odt pdf;     (5) Later Developing Conjunctions 1 odt pdf;     (6) Later Developing Conjunctions 2 odt pdf;     (7) Later Developing Conjunctions 3 odt pdf;     (8) Later Developing Conjunctions 4 odt pdf

Background Information

Conjunctions are an important method of extending sentence length and complexity, because they are a common method of joining words or parts of sentences together. Coordinating conjunctions join independent clauses together (as well as words and phrases), while subordinating conjunctions can join both dependent and independent clauses (as well as words and phrases).

Acquisition and frequency of conjunctions has been studied extensively. Among the findings are that the word and often initially takes the role of other conjunctions (Bloom et al., 1980; Scott, 1988; cited by Owens, 1996). The conjunctions but, so, or, and if soon are acquired in typically developing children to serve functions that and isn’t as easily able to achieve. Conjunctions like because then develop to express not only a relationship between sentence elements, but additionally a temporal sequence. According to one estimate, by the time normal children’s mean length of utterances reach 5.0 (at an average age of 4 to 5 years), 20% of the sentences they use in spontaneous speech contain embedded or conjoined clauses (Paul, 1981).

Language itself doesn’t require conjunctions, but effectively communicating advanced ideas usually does. As with other language modalities, conjunctions exist because they assist. We use them to achieve a goal. Just try giving a reason for something without using the word because, or try describing the time relationship between two completed events without using conjunctions such as before, after, or then. It can be done, but much less effectively.

Generally, developmental order of conjunctions is determined by the complexity of the relationship the conjunction serves. Conjunctions appear frequently in assessments such as the CELF, CASL, OWLS, and SPELT.

Guided Discussion Ideas

Say this: “Today we’re going to talk about special words that are used to make sentences longer. They’re called joining words, or conjunctions.”

Write and/or state examples at student’s level.

Say this: “Joining words join words or phrases together. Sometimes they can go at the beginning of a sentence, but they usually work much better in the middle of a sentence.”

Give an example: “If you say And he fell, you’re leaving something out. You don’t even need the word and. If there’s more to the story the and goes in the middle, like He tripped over the wagon and fell.”

Emphasize: “Just remember that conjunctions join words together. They let you talk about a lot of stuff all at one time.”

For advanced discussion:

Explain that conjunctions do things for you. Some tell you that many things are happening. Some give reasons. Some tell you when things happen.

Give examples: “If I’m talking about more than one thing I might use and. Like, I want salt and pepper. If I want only one, and it doesn’t matter which one, I use or. Like, I want salt or pepper. If I want to give a reason for something I use because or so. To sum it up, if you can use conjunctions correctly, it really helps people understand you better, and understanding conjunctions really helps you understand others better.

Short Drill Ideas

Quick Drill – Highly Structured Directions

Receptive – Use objects, pictures, or anything available to create highly directions with conjunctions. Change one element at a time. Provide cues as necessary to achieve near 100% accuracy. For example,

Point to the apple and the pear.

Point to the apple or the pear.

Point to the apple if I point to the pear.

Point to the apple unless I point to the pear.

Point to the apple after I point to the pear.

Point to the apple before I point to the pear.

Point to the apple, but not the pear.

Point to the apple while you point to the pear.

Change verbs and nouns for additional variety.

14 Responses to Conjunctions

  1. Pingback: Welcome to Free Language Stuff! « Free Language Stuff

  2. Pingback: Welcome to Free Language Stuff! « Free Language Stuff

  3. Diana says:

    EXCELLENT!

    Like

  4. Joanna says:

    GREAT JOB ON THIS SITE….huge sigh of relief because of you!

    Like

  5. Anonymous says:

    this is the best thing

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  6. Anonymous says:

    Fantastic, Thanks so much!!!

    Like

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  8. Anonymous says:

    So helpful! Thanks for all your hard work.

    Like

  9. merlie says:

    GOD BLESS YOU!!! YOU HAVE HELPED ME A LOT!!

    Like

  10. Beth says:

    This is amazing — just what my special education students need.!!

    Like

  11. Jeni Rickard says:

    Thank you so much for your site and great information.
    I wanted to point out that the conjunctions you list above as subordinating (and, but, so) are actually coordinating conjunctions. They link 2 independent clauses into a compound sentence. Subordinating conjunctions (when, if, unless, etc.) link a dependent and an independent clause.

    Like

  12. Paul says:

    Jeni, thanks, I miss-typed, and never noticed the mistake. I’m changing it now.

    Like

  13. kanchana says:

    Thanx!A good and thoughtful work.

    Like

  14. Anonymous says:

    love it! Thanks its great for my basic students!

    Like

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